The skin is made up of three layers

Skin DiagramThe epidermis is the outer skin layer and functions as the skin's protective barrier. Whilst this barrier function is essential, it does prevent the absorption of active ingredients into the skin. The skin has not just one, but two barriers that act to prevent the absorption of active ingredients into the skin, the stratum corneum (compressed outer portion of the epidermis) and the epidermal dermal junction.

The dermis lies under the epidermis and these two layers are separated by the epidermal-dermal junction, a semi-permeable membrane, that allows the passage of some substances through into the dermis. Beneath the dermis lies the subcutaneous layer, which consists of fat and blood vessels. The dermis also contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat (eccrine) glands.

To successfully correct the commonest skin conditions, we need to concentrate on the epidermis and the dermis and understand their structure and function.